The Pacific Coast
The British Columbia coast is indented by coves and protected from storms by Vancouver Island. It has the most even, comfortable climate of any Canadian region. Vancouver Island’s west coast is rained on frequently as a result of the coastal layout, which gives it a temperate rain forest climate. Because of this, the island’s west coast has the oldest and tallest trees in Canada: Douglas firs 90 meters high and Western Red Cedars 1,300 years old.
From British Columbia to the Alberta border the land is rugged, aggressively styled with mountains and plateaus. Here the Rocky Mountains, the Coastal Mountains and other ranges run north to south. Canada’s highest peaks are in the St. Elias Mountains, an extension of the Cordillera that reaches north into the Yukon and Alaska. The British Columbia interior is topographically convoluted, it varies from alpine snowfields to massive valleys where hot and dry conditions are typical.
The Prairies are often described as endless fields of wheat under a never ending sky. The plains areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are some of the richest grain-producing regions in the world. On a clear day you can see for miles in the prairies.
The Canadian Shield
A huge inland sea marks the birthplace of a huge part of Canadian heritage. This sea, the Hudson Bay, extends into the heart of Canada. Surrounding this bay is a rocky region called the Canadian Shield. It stretches east to Labrador, south to Kingston on Lake Ontario and northwest as far as the Arctic Ocean. The Canadian Shield is Canada’s largest geographical feature in addition to being a storehouse of minerals, including gold, silver, zinc, copper and uranium.
The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands
Southern Québec and Ontario are home to Canada’s two largest cities, Montreal and Toronto. This region is the industrial centre of Canada. 50 per cent of Canadians live here and produce 70 percent of Canada’s manufactured goods. A prime agricultural land, many foodstuffs are grown here such as grapes, peaches, pears and other fruits. The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence region is sugar maple country. The sugar maple leaves, Canada’s national symbol, are resplendent in red, orange and gold. During spring the sap is harvested to make maple syrup and sugar.
The Atlantic Provinces-Appalachian Region
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland are the smallest Canadian provinces. The most well known part of this region is the Grand Banks, which extends 400 kilometers off the east coast, where the mixing of ocean currents has created one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. Geographically, the Atlantic provinces are part of the Appalachian mountain range. This area is characterized by low, rugged hills and plateaus and deeply indented coastline.
The Arctic is a fierce and majestic place. Advances in transportation and communications technology have made the Arctic accessible where it was formerly very difficult to travel. Nowadays every community is served by air, and the majority of isolated communities have electricity, stores and health services. The seemingly endless miles of ice and snow make this a land of incredible solemn beauty. The glacial formations you can see in Canada’s arctic predate humanity.
We also have a general overview of Canadian Geography.